C.G. Shashank
Ph.D Scholar, Animal Physiology Division, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal (Haryana)
Taruneet Kaur
Ph.D Scholar, Animal Biochemistry, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal, Haryana
Bharath Kumar B.S
Ph.D Scholar, Animal Physiology Division, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal (Haryana)
Sohan Vir Singh
Principle Scientist, Animal Physiology Division, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal (Haryana)


Animals fundamentally do not sit by ideally and accept defeat in the face of environmental change. Evolution has molded many animals to deal with environmental inconsistency and exploit fitness across a gradient of environmental conditions. They can answer back to environmental changes in 3 key ways: adjust through phenotypic plasticity, disperse and adapt through genetic changes. Nevertheless, behavioral responses are not always adaptive in nature nor are the plasticity of behavior to stand the magnitude of the changes that are taking place, even when the behavioral response appears to be beneficial. More work, in understanding the boundaries of plasticity itself will be a chief possibility for future research.

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