Heat stress can be defined as the point where the livestock cannot dissipate an adequate quantity of heat to maintain body thermal balance. The foremost response of animals under heat stress is increases in respiration rate, rectal temperature and heart rate. It directly affect feed intake thereby, reduces growth rate, milk yield, reproductive performance and even death in extreme cases. High producing dairy breeds are more susceptible to heat stress than low producing, since they generate more metabolic heat. Heat Stress suppresses the immune and endocrine system thereby enhances susceptibility of an animal to various diseases. Therefore, identification of animals under heat stress and their amelioration are the key for sustainable dairy farming under changing climatic scenario globally
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