Kulkarni Nitish Arun
M.V.Sc. Scholar, Animal Physiology Division, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal
V. Sejian
Senior Scientist, Animal Physiology Division, ICAR-NIANP, Audugodi, Bengaluru
Shashank C G
Ph.D. Scholar, Animal Physiology Division, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal
Saurabh Tiwari
M.V.Sc. Scholar, Animal Reproduction Gynaecology and Obstetrics (LPM Section), ICAR-NDRI, Karnal, Haryana
Chethan H.S.
Animal Reproduction Gynaecology, and Obstetrics, SRS-NDRI, Audugodi, Bengaluru, Karnataka


Cryopreservation of semen and artificial insemination have a decisive, major impact on cattle production, and product quality. However, this technique results in deleterious changes to the spermatozoon structure during the freezing process, including sudden temperature changes, ice formation, and osmotic stress, which have been proposed as reasons for poor sperm quality post-thaw. For nearly 60 years, scientists have attempted to reduce these detrimental effects by adopting various defensive and controllable offensive strategies. This article discusses the current freezing techniques and novel strategies that have been developed for sperm protection against cryo-damage, along with the challenges in adopting them.

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